Differences, Artery & Vein, Electronic & Static Electricity, Concave & Convex Lens

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Artery & Vein


  • Arteries are blood vessels which transport blood away from the heart.
  • Arteries have thick vascular walls.
  • The inside bore or lumen of arteries is narrow.
  • Arteries carry oxygenated blood with the exception of pulmonary artery.
  • The walls of arteries are more elastic.
  • The blood is under great pressure in the arteries.
  • Arteries are generally deeply placed. viii) Arteries end in the capillaries.


  • Veins are the blood vessels which always carry blood towards heart.
  • Veins have thin muscular walls.
  • The inside bore or lumen of veins is wide.
  • Veins carry deoxygenated blood with the exception of pulmonary veins.
  • The walls of veins are less elastic.
  • The blood is under less pressure in the veins.
  • Veins are generally superficially placed.
  • Veins start from the capillaries.

PNP and NPN Transistor

  • NPN has higher electron mobility than PNP. Therefore, NPN bipolar transistors are often more favoured than PNP transistors.
  • NPN is easier to create from silicon than PNP.
  • The main difference of NPN and PNP is the base. One is just the opposite of the other.
  • With the NPN, a P-dope semiconductor is the base, while with the PNP, the base ′ is a N-dope semiconductor.

Electronic & Static Electricity

Electronic Electricity

  • This is electricity in motion.
  • It involves flow of electrons.
  • It has high voltage.

Static Electricity

  • This is electricity at rest.
  • It does not involve flow of electrons.
  • It has low voltage.

Concave & Convex Lens

Concave Lens

  • It is the lens which is narrower in the centre and broader towards the corners.
  • When a beam of light strikes a concave lens all the rays after passing through it diverge.
  • It gives mostly virtual image.
  • They are also called diverging lenses.

Convex Lens

  • It is the lens which is narrower towards the corners and broader towards the centre.
  • When a beam of light strikes a convex lens all the rays after passing through it converge at a single point.
  • Mostly real images are formed except when the ray of light passes through it when object is placed between optical centre and focus.
  • They are also called converging lenses.

Absorption & Adsorption


  • Absorption is a process in which a substance takes up another substance, such as blotting paper (solid) absorbing water (a liquid) .
  • OR Adsorption and absorption are two different things. Absorption is the chemical integration of one chemical into another. When you drink a glass of water, you are absorbing it, as the water becomes part of you.


  • Adsorption is a process in which a substance adheres to the surface of another substance. Adsorption is important in some types of catalysis, notably where gases adsorb on metal surfaces. The reaction is then made easier by a consequent lowering of activation energy. OR Adsorption occurs when one substance holds another via physical bonds. If you spill a glass of water on your shirt, it is adsorbed as the fibres will hold the water until heat dries out the shirt.

Fats & Oils


  • Are solid at room temperature
  • Made by animals, mostly
  • Are more saturated


  • Are liquid at room temperature
  • Are made by plants, mostly
  • Are less saturated


  • The fall in sugar level in the blood below the normal physiologic level known as Hypoglycaemia. Normal physiologic range of sugar in blood is 60 - 90mg % at fasting and 120 - 140 mg % at random.
  • It is treated by giving intravenous glucose.
  • It causes mental confusion, visual problem and often coma etc.
  • It causes weakness and increases in food desire.


  • Hyperglycaemia is a condition in which blood sugar level rise above its normal range.
  • It is treated by exercise, medicine or by intravenous insulin therapy.
  • It causes weakness, calf pain, unhealed wounds and kidney problem.
  • It causes excessive urination, dryness of lips and increased thirst etc.

Epidemic & Endemic


  • If at one place and times a great number of people suffer from a disease is known as epidemic.
  • It can travel from one place to another.

Examples: Influenza, Smallpox, Cholera etc.


  • If a disease persists in a particular locality, certain area or one region, it is known as endemic disease.
  • It cannot travel from one place to another place.

Example: Goitre in iodine deficient areas.

Herbivores & Carnivores


  • The animals eating green plants, grass and fodder are known as Herbivores.
  • Animals have specific digestive system to digest leaves, plants and fodder.
  • The teeth are specifically designed to cut and chew leaves, plants and fodder.
  • Jaw movement is specific for side motion.

Examples: goats, cattle, sheep, buffalo, cow etc.


  • The animals eating flesh and meat are known as carnivores.
  • Digestive enzymes are specific.
  • Their teeth are short and to cut and chew leaves, plants pointed especially for flesh eating.
  • Jaw movement is specific for up and down movement.

Examples: Tiger, dog, cat, lion etc.

Respiration & Photosynthesis


  • Respiration is a catabolic process in which compounds are broken down.
  • In this process carbohydrates are broken down into simpler compounds.
  • The end-products for this process are and .
  • In respiration Oxygen enters the plant body and is released.
  • It occurs during both day and night. Light is not necessary for this process.
  • In respiration energy is released from food material.


  • It is an anabolic process in which compounds are formed.
  • In this process carbohydrates are manufactured.
  • The end-product of this process is simple carbohydrates.
  • In photosynthesis enters the plant and is released.
  • It occurs during day time only. Light is essential for this process.
  • It is energy consuming process.

Pollination & Fertilization


  • It is a process involving transfer of pollens form male reproductive organ to female reproductive organ of plants.
  • It occurs in flowering plants.
  • The products of pollination are seed.
  • It takes place through animals, birds, insects, wind and water.


  • In fertilization fusion of egg and sperm occurs.
  • It occurs markedly in animals.
  • The product of fertilization is zygote.
  • It takes place by physical contact and mating of male and female.


  • Plastics that can be melted again and again are known as thermoplastics.
  • They behave just like wax.
  • These plastics can be shaped again and again.
  • Examples: Nylon, PVC, Teflon etc.

Thermosetting Plastics

  • Plastics that can be melted only once are known as thermosetting plastics.
  • They become hard after melting.
  • These plastics cannot be shaped again and again.
  • Examples: Polyesters and Bakelite.

Lunar & Solar Eclipse

Lunar Eclipse

  • It occurs when the earth comes between moon and sun.
  • Moon goes through series of partial eclipses when moon comes out of umbral region of earth՚s shadow.
  • Earth lies in umbral region at total eclipse when earth lies exactly between moon and sun and its shadow covers the whole moon.

Solar Eclipse

  • It occurs when moon comes between earth and sun.
  • Partial eclipse of sun occurs as in Penumbra can see a part of the sun.
  • At the total eclipse of the sun, the shadow of moon which it throws on earth consists of an umbra and penumbra people on earth who are in umbral region cannot see the sun.

Asteroid & Meteorite


  • The small rocky objects which are orbiting the sun between orbits of Mars and Jupiter are known as asteroids.
  • Its origin is concentrated to the remains of planets that fell apart.
  • Asteroid means star like but these are known as minor planets.


  • Tiny chunk of material floating in space, which can also enter the earth՚s atmosphere and become meteor are known as meteorites.
  • It may originate by the disintegration of comet.
  • A falling star (Meteor) is seen as a streak of light in sky.

Renewable & Non-Renewable Resources

Renewable Resources

  • Renewable resources are used continuously and can be used again and again.
  • Major examples are: air, water, soil, wildlife, forests, fish etc.
  • These resources support millions of people all over the world.
  • Renewable resources are constantly renewed by bio-geochemical cycles of nature.

Non-Renewable Resources

  • Non-renewable resources cannot be used again and again after their consumption.
  • Major examples include: Coal, oil, natural gas etc.
  • These resources cannot support millions of people all over the world.
  • Non-renewable resources are being exhausted day by day because their demand rises. Due to worldwide demand of fossil fuels, its supplies are declining. OR Renewable resources-
  • The resources that can be renewed by reproduction are called renewable resources.
  • Renewable resources are inexhaustible.
  • Renewable resources are not affected by the human activities.
  • All biotic resources are renewable.
  • For example: air and water.

Non-Renewable Resources-

  • The resources that are present in fixed quantities are called non-renewable resources.
  • Non-renewable resources are inexhaustible.
  • Non-renewable resources are affected by human activities.
  • Some abiotic resources are non-renewable.
  • For example- fossil fuels and minerals.

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