NCERT Class 6 Science Chapter 10: Motion and Measurement of Distances YouTube Lecture Handouts

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What is Physics?

Properties of world around us

Distances and Transport

Modes of Transport

  • Man has invented faster and faster modes of transport

  • From moving on foot to inventing wheels, using animals, petrol engines, and even rockets.

Types of Modes of Transport

Image of Modes of Transport

Image of Modes of Transport

Image of Modes of Transport

  • Land Transport

    • Corridors- Rails (track), roads (corridor)

    • Unstructured- People and animals moving

  • Water Transport

    • Boats, streamers (present from long ago)

    • Oceanic – Large intercontinental

    • Inland Transport (rivers)

  • Air Transport (1900)

    Air, rocket etc.

Fuel in Vehicles

Animal/human powered

Fossil

  • Petrol

  • Diesel

  • Coal

    • Renewable

      Solar Cells

    • Electro-magnetic

      • Electric cars

      • Levitating

      • Hyperloop

      • Ropeway

Image of levitating trains

Image of Levitating Trains

Image of levitating trains

Electric locomotives (train engines)

Speed of Transport

  • Walking

  • Bullock cart

    • Cycling

    • Motor Cycle/Cars

    • Trains and bullet trains

    • Airplane/helicopter (supersonic planes)

    • Rockets/Spaceships

Measurement

What is Measurement?

  • Comparing unknown to known.

  • Always done using a measure (usually numerical) + unit for example 2 meters

Units of Measurement

Primitive Units Used Body Parts

Cubit (18 to 22 inches)

Image of Cubit - Primitive Units Used Body Parts

Image of Cubit - Primitive Units Used Body Parts

Image of Cubit - Primitive Units Used Body Parts

Fathom – Length of the outstretched arm (roughly 6 feet). Water depth is measured in fathoms.

Image of Fathom - Primitive Units Used Body Parts

Image of Fathom - Primitive Units Used Body Parts

Image of Fathom - Primitive Units Used Body Parts

Hand-span – Roughly 9 inches

Image of Hand-span - Primitive Units Used Body Parts

Image of Hand-Span - Primitive Units Used Body Parts

Image of Hand-span - Primitive Units Used Body Parts

  • Thumb (basis of inch)- thumbnails

  • Stride Length

Image of Stride- Primitive Units Used Body Parts

Image of Stride- Primitive Units Used Body Parts

Image of Stride- Primitive Units Used Body Parts

Foot:

Image of Foot - Primitive Units Used Body Parts

Image of Foot - Primitive Units Used Body Parts

Image of Foot - Primitive Units Used Body Parts

Primitive Units Varied Across the World (Indian Distance Units Are Given Below)

Small length measurements used angul (finger) or a mutthi (fist). Measures of larger lengths are given below:

Image of Some other books give different measurement

Image of Some Other Books Give Different Measurement

Image of Some other books give different measurement

So What is the Problem?

  • Lilliput and Brobdingnag?

  • Increasing trade, travel and globalization

Some Unification

  • MKS-System: Length is measured in Meter (M), mass is measured in Kilogram (K) and time is measured in Second (S). Developed in 1970 in France.

  • CGS-System: In this system, length is measured in centimeter (C), mass in gram (G) and time in second (S).

  • FPS-System: In this system, length is measured in foot (F), mass in pound (P) and time in second (S).

Image of measurement units in ancient world

Image of Measurement Units in Ancient World

Image of measurement units in ancient world

SI Units

  • Modern form of the metric system (from France)

  • Seven base units (ampere, kelvin, second, metre, gram, candela, mole)

What is a Meter?

Length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second.

Scale of Length/ Distances

Image of Scale of Nature

Image of Scale of Nature

Image of Scale of Nature

Important Prefixes

Image of units prefixes

Image of Units Prefixes

Image of units prefixes

Table of Factor, Prefix and Symbol
Table of Factor, Prefix and Symbol

Factor

Prefix

Symbol

giga

G

mega

M

kilo

k

hecto

h

deka

da

deci

d

centi

c

milli

m

micro

nano

pico

Other SI Units

Table of Other SI Units
Table of Other SI Units

Symbol

Name

Quantity

A

ampere

electric current

K

kelvin

Temperature

s

second

Time

m

metre

length

g

gram

mass

cd

candela

luminous intensity

mol

mole

amount of substance

Measuring Devices and Right Measurement

How to measure circumference of the globe?

Reading the Scale

Image of Scale Reading

Image of Scale Reading

Image of Scale Reading

Correct Way of Doing Measurement

Place the scale in contact with the object along the object

Image of Place the scale in contact with the object along the object

Place the Scale Along the Object

Image of Place the scale in contact with the object along the object

Use good part of the scale

Image of Use Good Part of The Scale

Image of Use Good Part of the Scale

Image of Use Good Part of The Scale

Correct position of eye to reduce parallax

Image of correct position of eye to reduce parallax

Image of Correct Position of Eye to Reduce Parallax

Image of correct position of eye to reduce parallax

Errors in Measurement

Choosing Right Device

  • Length to be measured

  • Shape of the object

  • Accuracy required

Motion and Types of Motion

Motion is any kind of a change in the position of an object with time.

Some objects can move while others are stationary.

  • Translatory: All particles of a body move through the same distance in the same time.

    • Rectilinear

    • Curvilinear

    • Random

  • Rotatory or Circular – has a center point

  • Rolling- center point undergoes translatory motion

Periodic or Non-Periodic

  • Vibratory: Periodic motion due to elastic property of body. For example scale vibrating throughout the of body.

  • Oscillation: Periodic but translational. For example, pendulum.

  • Reciprocating: Moving saw back and forth

  • Rotatory: Earth, sun etc.

Concept of Speed

Image of Concept of Speed

Image of Concept of Speed

Image of Concept of Speed