NCERT Class 6 Science Chapter 3: Fibre to Fabric YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Cloth

  • Cotton

  • Synthetic

  • Woolen

  • Silk

Types of Cloth - bed sheets, blankets, curtains, tablecloths, towels and dusters

Cloth Materials

  • Fabric made of yarns arranged together

  • Yarn splits into small threads – it is separated into thin strands as fibers

  • Fibers can be obtained from plants (cotton and jute) or animals (wool and silk) – natural fibers

  • Wool from sheep, goat, rabbit, yak, camel

  • Silk from silkworm (cocoon)

  • Synthetic fiber – made from chemical substances like polyester, nylon and acrylic

Image of Cloth Materials

Image of Cloth Materials

Image of Cloth Materials

Cotton

  • Wicks of oil lamp

  • Fillings for mattress, quilts and pillows

  • Grown in fields

  • Black soil & warm climate

  • Fruits called as cotton bolls – size of lemon

  • When fruits mature they burst and open & seeds covered with fibers can be seen

  • Bolls are picked by hand

  • Fiber is separated from seeds by combing (called as ginning) – initially by hands and now machines do it

Bale

Image of University Density Bale 500 Pounds

Image of University Density Bale 500 Pounds

Image of University Density Bale 500 Pounds

Image of Picking Cotton From Plants

Image of Picking Cotton from Plants

Image of Picking Cotton From Plants

Jute

  • From stem of jute plant

  • Cultivated in rainy season

  • Grown in West Bengal, Assam and Bihar

  • Harvested when it is at the flowering stage

  • Stems immersed in water, they rot and fiber is separated

Spinning

Image of Spinning

Image of Spinning

Image of Spinning

  • Process of making yarn from fibres is called spinning.

  • In this process, fibres from a mass of cotton wool are drawn out and twisted

  • This brings the fibres together to form a yarn.

  • Simple device – hand spindle takli

  • Then – Charkha – popularized by Gandhiji – homespun yarn and chun imported cloth from Britain

Image of Spinning Charkha

Image of Spinning Charkha

Image of Spinning Charkha

Weaving

  • Putting 2 sets of yarn together is known as weaving

  • Weaving is done by looms

  • These can be powerloom or handloom

Knitting

  • Single yarn is used to make a fabric & gets pulled continuously

  • Can be done by hands and machines

Image of wool knitting

Image of Wool Knitting

Image of wool knitting

History of Clothing Material

  • People used bark and big leaves of trees

  • Animal skins and furs

  • Fabrics made of cotton that grew near Ganga

  • Flax is also a plant

  • Egypt: Flax was cultivated near Nile River and used to make fabrics

  • Stitching was not known and people draped the clothes

  • With invention of needle, stitching started

  • Name unstitched clothes as of now: Saree, Lungi, Dhoti, Turban

What Can Be Done to Identify Cloth Material?

  • Touch & feel

  • Separate fiber

  • Test strength

  • Observe luster

Image of Woolen, Cotton, Burr And Synthetic

Image of Woolen, Cotton, Burr and Synthetic

Image of Woolen, Cotton, Burr And Synthetic

  • Fibers can be identified by their textures.

  • The ‘burrs’ in wool are the maximum, less in cotton yarn and the least in synthetic yarn