NCERT Class 6 Science Chapter 9: Living Organisms and their Surroundings YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Different places

  • Cold – oaks, pines and deodars; goats and yaks

  • Hot and dry – Rajasthan desert – cactus; camels – little water; hot in day and cold in night

  • Humid – beach and coastal areas – casuarina trees; fishes Terrestrial Habitat

Human and Adaptation

  • Adaptation: Presence of specific features or certain habits, which enable a plant or an animal to live in its surroundings

  • Habitat: Surroundings where organisms live; a dwelling place shared by various organisms

  • Camels – long legs to keep body away from surface heat. They excrete less urine, dry dung and no sweat. They lose little water from body and so can survive for long.

Image of Anatomy of Camels

Image of Anatomy of Camels

Image of Anatomy of Camels

Fish – streamlined body to move inside water; slippery scales to protect the body; flat fins and tails to change direction and balance body in water; gills use oxygen dissolved in water to breathe.

Image of Anatomy of a fish

Image of Anatomy of a Fish

Image of Anatomy of a fish

  • Terrestrial Habitat: Plants and animals that live on land – forest, grassland, desert, mountains

  • Aquatic Habitat: Plants and animals that live in water – ponds, swamps, lakes, oceans

  • Living components are biotic

  • Non-living components are abiotic

  • Abiotic factors like air, water, light and heat are very important for growth of plants (germination) and all other living organisms as well

  • Over thousands of year, abiotic factors change in a region – some animals die out while other survive

Terrestrial Habitat

Desert

  • Rats and snakes stay in burrows

  • Camels with long legs

  • Desert plants loose little water by transpiration

  • Leaves are absent or reduced to spines (prevents loss of water)

  • Photosynthesis is carried by stem which is modified as leaf.

  • Stem is covered by thick waxy layer to retain water

  • Deep roots to absorb water

Image of Terrestrial Habitat

Image of Terrestrial Habitat

Image of Terrestrial Habitat

Mountain Regions

  • Regions are very cold and windy

  • Some snowfall in winters

  • Have fur on skin or thick skin to protect from cold

  • Yak has long hair to keep them warm

  • Snow leopard have thick fur on body and feet – protect feet from cold

  • Trees are cone shaped with sloping branches

  • Leaves are needle shaped – help rainwater and snow to slip off

  • The mountain goat has strong hooves for running up the rocky slopes of the mountains

Image of deodar

Image of Deodar

Image of deodar

Grasslands

  • Lion – strong animal and can hunt deer - have long claws in their front legs that can be withdrawn inside the toes; light brown color helps it to hide in dry grasslands when it hunts for prey (animals to eat). The eyes in front of the face allow it to have a correct idea about the location of its prey

  • Deer – Strong teeth to chew hard plants; needs to know about the presence of predators (animals like lion that make it their prey) in order to run away from them; long ears to hear movements of predators. The eyes on the side of its head allow it to look in all directions for danger. The speed of the deer helps them to run away from the predators

Image of lion and deer

Image of Lion and Deer

Image of lion and deer

Aquatic Habitats

Oceans

  • Streamlined body to move easily

  • Octopus and squids – deep in ocean near seabed to catch the prey; when they move they make their body streamlined; use gills for respiration

  • Dolphins and whales – have no gills but blowholes or nostrils on upper part of heads – breathe when they swim near surface water; they can stay inside without breathing for long time

Image of dolphin whale nostrils

Image of Dolphin Whale Nostrils

Image of dolphin whale nostrils

Ponds & Lakes

  • Roots are reduced in aquatic plants – mainly hold the plant

  • Stems – long, hollow and light - stems grow up to the surface of water while the leaves and flowers, float on the surface of the water

  • Some are totally submerged with thin narrow ribbon like leaves, which can bend in flowing water; leaves are divided and water can flow through them easily

  • Frogs – inside and outside water; strong back legs to leap and catch prey; webbed foot to swim

Image of Characteristics of Aquatic Ecosystems

Image of Characteristics of Aquatic Ecosystems

Image of Characteristics of Aquatic Ecosystems

Living Things

  • Need Food – gives energy to grow and for other life processes

  • Grow – young ones grow into adults

  • Respire - In respiration, some of the oxygen of the air we breathe in, is used by the living body. We breathe out the carbon dioxide produced in this process.

    • Earthworm breathe by skin

    • Fishes have gills to breathe

    • Leaves have tiny pores as stomata

    • The amount of oxygen released in the process of food preparation by plants is much more than the oxygen they use in respiration.

  • Response to Stimuli – Changes in our surroundings that makes us respond to them, are called stimuli. Touch me not plant (mimosa); sunflower plant; cockroach hide in dark

  • Excretion – getting rid of the waste by living organisms

  • Reproduce – as young ones or by eggs; plants produce by seeds

  • Movement – animals move but plants move in response to stimuli

  • Die – all living organism die. One single organism may die without ever reproducing, but, the type of organism can exist only if there is reproduction

Image of 7 Characteris tics of living organisms

Image of 7 Characteris Tics of Living Organisms

Image of 7 Characteris tics of living organisms