Eco-Feminism: Gender and Society: Introduction, Meaning and Goals

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  • Eco-feminism was a term first used by Francoise D ′ Eaubonne to describe movements and philosophies that link feminism with ecology.
  • These two movements are interconnected and believe that the worldview that causes environmental degradation and injustice is the same worldview that causes a culture of male domination, exploitation, and inequality for women.
  • both nature and women exist to fulfill the requirement of men.


  • It is a feminist approach to environmental ethics.
  • It seeks to find out the causes of the oppression of women and also the measures to deal with them.
  • This theory believes that there is an interconnection between the oppression of women and the oppression of other humans
  • here the meaning of other types of oppression include ageism, colonialism and racism, etc. and the domination of nature that is naturalism.
  • Ecofeminism gives necessary conditions and want to eradicate all oppressive conceptual frameworks and create a world in which differences do not lead to domination
  • It does not Believe in ethical essentialism or that the concepts are defined by a set of necessary and sufficient conditions


  • The practices and theories concerning human and the natural environment that are not male biased and that provide a guide in the pre-feminist present is the goal of eco-feminist environmental ethics.
  • Ecofeminism is a revolutionary position because they want to dismantle the structure of traditional Western ethics and construct a new one that does not promote isms of domination and recognizes the interconnections between oppression of women and other humans and the domination of nature

Chipko Movement as Ecofeminism

  • Ecofeminism tends to hold the Chipko movement as a model of an ecofeminist environmental movement.
  • 1970s
  • in the Uttar Pradesh region of the
  • This was a struggle between local control over the forests and the governments considering outside commercial development.
  • Their knowledge was undervalued and ignored.
  • The women were against the government and also in opposition to the local men the husbands, brothers, fathers
  • Protecting the trees meant protecting the ability of women to control the means of production and the resources used in their daily lives.
  • The eco-feminist interpretation of the Chipko movement includes an analysis of the material needs of women (through examining their dependence on the trees) as much as it considers the need to protect nature from domination and oppression.
  • Chipko movement shows us that eco-feminists want to do this in a way that allows women to have a voice in how and when nature will be dominated for humans.

Vandana Shiva

  • nature and women are considered as inferior, passive, and non-productive categories by means of domination and exploitation
  • Vandana Shiva plays a major role in the global Ecofeminist movement. A participant of Chipko Movement.

Shiva suggested that:

  • a more sustainable and productive approach to agriculture can be achieved through more centered on engaging women.
  • “patriarchal logic of exclusion” should be criticized
  • a woman-focused system would change the current system in an extremely positive manner.
  • She believes that ecological destruction and industrial catastrophes threaten daily life, and the maintenance of these problems have become the responsibility of women.

Thinkers and Books

  • Karen Warren: Eco-feminist philosophy
  • Vandana Shiva and Maria Mies (radical feminist) co-wrote the book “Ecofeminism” in 1993
  • Francoise D ′ Eaubonne: Le Feminisme ou la Mort, 1974
  • Charlene Spretnak – Green party
  • Greta Gaard – animal liberation, vegetarianism, etc.
  • Judi Bari – Earth First
  • Laura Wright – vegan studies


1. Which is the main basis for the growth of eco-feminism?

(A) Deforestation in industrial society.

(B) Women՚s lives and their relationship with the nature.

(C) Pollution and environmental degradation.

(D) Global warming.

Answer: (B) Women՚s lives and their relationship with the nature

2. Which ideological movement emerged as a response to the large-scale destruction of environment and the subsequent impact on women?

(a) Euphemism

(b) Ecofeminism

(c) Androcentrism

(d) Existential Feminism

Ans. (b) Ecofeminism

#Gender and Society


#Theories of Gender Relations


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