G. S. Ghurye: Indological or Textual Perspective, Family, Kinship and Marriage

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Family, Kinship and Marriage

  • Endogamy to preserve kinship
  • The kin and caste networks in India had parallels in some other societies also.
  • The kinship and caste in India served in the past as integrative frameworks.
  • The evolution of society was based on the integration of diverse, racial or ethnic groups through these networks.

The relationship between caste and kinship is very close because:

  • exogamy in our society is largely based on kinship, either real or imaginary, and
  • the effective unit of caste, sub-caste is largely constituted of kinsmen.
  • To Ghurye, there are three types of marriage restrictions in our society, which shape the relationship between caste and kinship.
  • These are endogamy, exogamy and hypergamy.

Exogamy can be divided into two parts:

(i) sapinda or prohibited degrees of kin (cousin marriage)

(ii) sept or gotra exogamy. (clan)

  • Exogamy: marriage with outsiders
  • Endogamy: insider marriage
  • Hypergamy: when a woman marries a man from higher status. Also called Anuloma vivah.

Culture & Civilization

  • According to Ghurye, ā€œcivilization is the sum total of social heritage projected on the social planeā€ .
  • ā€œRurbunizationā€ - Rural + Urban

Views of culture

  • According to needs and situation: independent
  • Accumulation and diffusion

Metropolitan economy dominated villages by becoming manufacturing hubs


  • Directs and guides men
  • Centre of culture and heritage
  • Indian Sadhus as the arbiters of religious disputes, patronized learning of scriptures and the sacred lore and even defended religion against external attacks.
  • ā€˜Religious consciousnessā€™

National Unity and Integration

  • Threats to unity: SC, ST, OBC, Muslims < linguistic minorities
  • How to preserve cultural unity?
  • Strengthening Brahminical flow of culture (acculturation)
  • All the major institutions of Hindu society originated among the Brahmins and gradually they were accepted by other sections of the community.


  • Field survey of Mahadev Kolis tribe and Sex Habits of Middle-Class People in Maharashtra
  • Said that tribes could hinder nationality
  • Armed chair Sociologist
  • Views contradictory to Oriental views
  • Only studied Hindu culture


1. ā€² In a metamorphically sense the village communities of India were of many years beyond the frontiers of dynasties which ruled the great cities. Who made this statement?

  1. S. C. Dubey
  2. M. N. Srinivas
  3. Biedleman
  4. G. S. Ghurye

Ans. D

2. Who gave the term Rurbunization?

  1. M. N. Srinivas
  2. G. S. Ghurye
  3. A. R Desai
  4. Irawati Karwe

Ans. B

#Theoretical Perspectives

#Indological or Textual Perspective

#G. S. Ghurye

āœ Manishika