Modernity: Introduction and Good, Bad of Modernity and Transformation of Social Culture

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Introduction of Modernity

Introduction of Modernity

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  • 19th Century Europe

  • New ideas and beliefs

  • Change in culture and society


  • Renaissance

  • French Revolution

  • Industrial Revolution

To study these changes, Sociology as a discipline emerged.

  • Inevitable

  • Irreversible

  • News ways of thinking, acting

  • Shift from faith to logic and rationality

  • Questioning of Theocratic rule

  • Rise of printing press

  • Liberal philosophy

Good and Bad of Modernity

Good and bad of Modernity

Good and Bad of Modernity

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Good and bad of Modernity

Good and Bad of Modernity

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  • Man, as the center of the world

  • Orthodoxy to Rationality

  • New social order

  • Participative

  • Social reconstruction

Transformation of Social Culture

  • Migration

  • Class identity

  • Division of class among class between those who developed and who did not

  • Specialization

  • Rise of new society

St. Simon

Ethical sociology

August Comte

  • Metaphysical society (discards belief in a concrete God)

  • Positivist

  • Modernity is hope

  • Once society is progressive. No coming back.


  • Range from simple to complex society

  • Collective consciousness


  • Control of goods, surplus

  • Dominance of one class

  • Suffering of mass

  • Inequality

  • Revolution is the solution


  • Historical process

  • Protestant ethics

  • Bureaucracy, Democracy, Education, Economy

  • Institutions


  • Range of commodities

  • Migration

  • Employment

  • Standard of living

  • Unity of races, classes

Scenario Today

  • Loss of ecosystem, environment

  • Data theft, privacy invasion

  • Market monopoly

  • Consumerism

  • Pseudo feeling of being modern

  • Skepticism


Q.1. Assertion (A): The concept of ‘secularization’ as used in Indian Constitution implies that State does not provide patronage to any religion.

Reason (R): Religion does not hold significance in modern society.


(A) (A) is true and (R) is false and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) (A) is false and (R) is true.

(C) (A) is true and (R) is false and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(D) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

Answer: (C)

Q.2. Match an item in List-I with an item in List-II.

Match an item in List-I with an item in List-II

List – I (Books)

List – II (Thinkers)

a. Modernisation of Indian Tradition

1. Y. Singh

b. When a great Tradition Modernises

2. M. Singer

c. Caste in Modern India

3. M.N. Srinivas

d. Caste, Class and Power

4. Andre Betille

(A) 1 2 3 4

(B) 4 3 2 1

(C) 3 2 1 4

(D) 2 1 4 3

Answer: (A)