Post-Modernization: Introduction and Features of Post-Modern Society

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  • New ways of thinking about thought
  • Range of developments
  • Post-modern society is different from the modern society
  • Requires new methods of study and theoretical frameworks
  • Stable and constant institutions are losing their significance
  • E. g. Joint family which used to bind us together
  • With the rise of globalization individuals are much freer to construct their own culture and identity
  • Refers to a historical Epoch called the modern Era
  • How there is a difference in movies, architecture, art, culture from modern to post modern society
  • So, it encompasses of a new historical Epoch
  • New cultural products and new theories
  • Replacing modern realities
  • Highlights the chaos and unpredictability in society
  • How socially constructed barriers are breaking down with advancement in time
  • Institutions are changing rapidly
  • Difficult to define under one label, e. g. family
  • New religions introduced
  • Experience of a ‘pick and mix’ culture
  • When deciding a religion as individuals will choose a religion that best suits their lifestyle and choices


By Smart:

  • Radical rupture – Baudrillard, Bogard
  • In continuity with modernity – Jameson, Fraser
  • Points out limitations of modernity – Smart

Features of Post-Modern Society


Trans boundary flow of information, ideas, trade, and people


  • Factual and fictional
  • Hyper reality
  • Is the virtual world more real than reality?

Consumer Society

  • Individual freedom to choose one՚s lifestyle
  • Consuming things, and leisure activities are more important today than work.
  • A world in Fragments
  • Dynamism: Rapid social change
  • Cultural diversity and hybridity
  • The result of all the above = a lack of clear direction, and an abandonment of the possibility of progress

How Post-Modernity Differs from Modernity


  • Death of the subject: a version of events as there is no objective knowledge that is true for everything.
  • Grand theories: These are no longer applicable in an ever increasingly diverse society. Rejection of the meta-narrative.
  • Shift from sociological theories to social theories which are multidisciplinary


  • Highlighted cultural changes in media, identity, etc.
  • Emphasis on construction of identity
  • It throws light on contemporary social changes like growing risks, globalization, and the growing power of the media.


  • ‘Late modernity’ and ‘reflexivity’ – Giddens
  • It exaggerates the scale of social change
  • Postmodernism is itself a metanarrative
  • Does not explain where changes came from?


Q. 1. Postmodernists typically argue that …

a) ‘Universalist’ narratives which attempt to explain the world are invariably false

b) The world is socially constructed in a variety of ways

c) Differences of viewpoint should be celebrated not deplored

d) All of the above

Ans: d)

Q. 2. Why is postmodernism attractive to some feminists?

a) Both positions tend to be supported with a large quantity of pretentious jargon.

b) Postmodernists provide a vision for a more equal world.

c) Postmodernists are useful allies in campaigns of civil disobedience.

d) Postmodernism emphasizes difference and variety, as well as highlighting the importance of the private and the personal.

Ans. d)





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