Slums Developmental Issue Sociology YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Slums Developmental Issue


  • According to the Census, a residential area where dwellings are unfit for human habitation by reasons of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangements and design of such buildings, narrowness or faulty arrangement of street, lack of ventilation, light, or sanitation facilities or any combination of these factors which are detrimental to the safety and health.
  • According to the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN Habitat) , a slum household is defined as “a group of individuals that live under the same roof that lack one or more of the following conditions; access to improved water, access to improved sanitation, sufficient living space, durability of housing and secure tenure” .
  • According to the United Nations agency UN-HABITAT, a slum is a run-down area of a city characterized by substandard housing and poverty and lacking in tenure security.
  • According to the United Nations, the proportion of urban dwellers living in slums decreased from 47 percent to 37 percent in the developing world between 1990 and 2005

Introduction and Concept

  • Slums are “a chaotically occupied, unsystematically developed and generally neglected area, which is overpopulated by persons and overcrowded with ill-repaired and neglected structures” - Indian Conference, 1957
  • Slums are unplanned, illegal urban settlements on public land
  • Grow over a period of time in a constant and irregular manner.
  • Part of urbanization
  • The growth of slums is regarded as a general urban phenomena prevalent throughout the world
  • Rising slum population is a huge concern for creating urban development policies
  • Slums are ignored during the whole process of urban development

Population of Slums in India

Slums Reported By Towns in Census 2011

Slums Reported by Towns in Census 2011
  • Out of total 4,041 Statutory Towns 2.543 towns (63 %) reported slums
  • Largest number of Slums in Maharashtra (21,359)
  • 57 % of slums in Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, and Maharashtra.
  • Asia՚s largest slum is Dharavi in Mumbai
  • World՚s largest slum is Neza in Mexico

SDG and Slums

  • Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
  • To move millions of people out of substandard conditions and providing them with adequate housing

Growing Population of Slums

  • Population explosion
  • Rural to Urban Migration
  • Poverty
  • Shortage of land to accommodate people in urban areas
  • Inefficient local government bodies
  • Red-tapism in land development programmes
  • Social stratification
  • Lack of political will

Issues Related to Slums

  • Many slum communities are not officially Gazetted as residential areas
  • Underrepresented in censuses and in national sampling frames
  • Hard to reach group
  • Displacement
  • Sanitation
  • Child marriage
  • High infant mortality rate
  • Diseases like HIV AIDS, Cholera
  • Poor position of women – domestic violence, child bearing, prostitution
  • Lack of education
  • Crime hub
  • Hunger
  • Child labour
  • Malnutrition

Government Initiatives

  • Smart City Mission
  • Housing for all by 2022
  • Clean India Mission


Q. 1. A ghetto is ________

i. A slum section of an American city

ii. Members do not belong to minority groups

iii. Residing there by will

iv. All of these

Answer: i

Q. 2. In order to tackle the growing issues of slums, which can of these methods, can be adopted.

i. Higher and stable income to slum dwellers

ii. Development of infrastructure

iii. Pro-destitute vehicles for transportation and easy access

iv. All of these

Answer: iv

#Developmental Issues




0: 00 Developmental issue: Slums

0: 07 Definitions of Slums

0: 17 Introduction And Concept of Slums

2: 03 Slums Reported By Towns in Census 2011

3: 10 SDG and Slums

3: 37 Growing Population of Slums

5: 47 Issues Related To Slums

7: 31 Govt. Initiatives

8: 51 MCQ about Slums

#Developmentalissue #Slums #DefinitionsofSlums #IntroductionofSlums #ConceptofSlums #SlumsReportedByTownsInCensus 2011 #SDGandSlums #GrowingPopulationofSlums #IssuesRelatedToSlums #GovtInitiatives #MCQAboutSlums #testprep