Sociological Concepts: Socialization, Introduction, Concept and Agents

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  • There are certain ways by which a society trains the newborn individuals/members
  • Helps them develop their own personality
  • This social training is known as socialization
  • The ways of training are determined by the culture of the society and it varies with societies
  • It also has different effects on the personality of the members of the society
  • There is a synthesis of culture and socialization in the human personality.
  • According to Ogburn, “Socialization is the process by which the individual learns to conform to the norms of the group.”
Introduction of Sociological Concepts


  • Individuals are molded into the society and learn the ways of acting, thinking and feeling according to the society
  • This process of shaping the personality of individuals is called as socialization
  • It is the process where an individual becomes a functioning member of the society and learns the rules.
  • The individuals share a common culture and ways of living.
  • This is passed on to the next generation
  • Therefore, we can say that man is a social and a cultural being
  • Socialization can also be termed as transmission of culture where men learn the rules of social groups and pass it on to the next generation
  • For example, doing something and learning by our mistakes … the mistakes are corrected by the society and this is how socialization takes place

Agents of Socialization

  • Family, parents
  • school, teachers
  • Peers, friends
  • Mass media


  • Socialization is a continuous process where the individual keep trying to adjust to the social conditions around him
  • When the individuals conform to the norms rules of the group, they also maintain social order in the society
  • Therefore, we can say that socialization transforms humans into social beings
  • Socialization is social learning which is continuous in nature i.e.. It continues throughout the life
  • With different roles that we acquire during the lifetime, the patterns of behaviours change and individuals adapt to it
  • According to GH Mead, self is purely social in nature. socialization helps in the development of the self by internalizing the norms which become a part of our personality by the method of trial and error.


Primary Socialization

  • Primary socialization is the basic socialization taking place in the early years of life of the newborn or infant
  • It includes teaching of language, internalization of norms, values and establishing emotional ties, gaining perspective, etc.
  • Anticipatory Socialization Anticipatory socialization is when individuals learn the culture of other groups and they want to belong to.
  • So, they socialize themselves in a way to become a part of the group
  • The individual learns the culture, manners, way of living etc. of the group that he aspires to become a part of.

Developmental Socialization

  • Developmental socialization is when new learning is added to the old and it becomes a continuous process of development
  • It varies with the change in roles to keep up with the new roles and obligations
  • E. g. New job


  • Resocialization is when individuals change membership of groups and the learned patterns are substituted with the new ones
  • It takes place when a social role is changed radically
  • Note: Adult socialization: Learn during adulthood to prepare for coming responsibilities.


1. In an Indian family the parents prepare their daughters to be a good wife/daughter in her in-laws՚ home, this is an example of:

  1. Socialization
  2. Anticipatory socialization
  3. Re-socialization
  4. Adult socialization

Ans. D

2. Which are the agencies of primary socialization?

  1. Family
  2. Peer group
  3. School
  4. Jail

Ans. A, B and C

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