Geography of Ladakh Leh Kargil: History of Ladakh and Physiography

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History of Ladakh
  • District Leh with an area of 45100 Sq. Km makes it 2nd largest district in the country after Kutch (Gujrat) with an area 45652 Sq. Km in terms of area. the district is bounded by Pakistan occupied Kashmir in the west and china in the north and eastern part and Lahul Spiti of Himachal Pradesh in the south east
  • The biggest ethnic group is Buddhist having 77.30 % of population followed by Muslims with 13.78 % and Hindus with 8.16 %
  • The main occupation engaging the working force is cultivation (37.92 %) , agriculture labour (4.28 %)
  • Ladakhi language is spoken by the majority
  • minor tribal community of Aryan race living in the valley of Dha- Hanu
  • Dance - Jabro, Shondol, Marriage Dance and Kampa Sumsak
  • Songs - Zunglu, Tallu, Marriage songs and Alley Yato
  • Kargil - land of Agas (heads of Shia Muslims)
  • Kargil is derived from two words Khar and rKil. Khar means castle and rKil means center thus a place between castles as the place lay between many kingdoms.
  • Drass is inhabited by the people of the Dard race and Zanskar has Ladakhi – Tibeto stock. The racial stocks of Kargilis are Aryans, Dard, Tibetans and Mongoloids
  • Mir Shams-ud-Din Iraqi, a scholar of Shia school of central Asia visited Baltistan and Kargil with his missionaries to preach Islam.
  • Buddhism remained squeezed in Kargil to the places like Sapi, Phokar, Mulback, Wakha Bodh-Kharboo areas a Darchik Garkon and Zanskar
  • Before the Partition of India in 1947, Kargil was part of the Baltistan district of Ladakh, a sparsely populated region with diverse linguistic, ethnic and religious groups
  • At the end of Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the two nations signed the Simla Agreement promising not to engage in armed conflict with respect to that boundary. Kargil became a separate district in the Ladakh region

History of Ladakh


History of Ladakh
  • Maryul or low land by Kha- chumpa
  • Kia-Chha by Fa-Hein
  • Ma-Lo-Pho by Hieun Tsang
History of Ladakh

Occupied Regions

  • Pakistan 78,114 sq. km.
  • China 37,555 sq. km.
  • Pakistan to China – 5180 sq. km.

Ladakh or in Tibetan La-dvags, the land of many passes. Formerly, it was also called “dMar-yul” or lowland or Red-land


  • Brokpas from Dadarstan who inhabited the lower reaches of the Indus Valley popularly known as Sham.
  • Mons, Aryan came from karja (Kulu) settled in Gya and spread to Rong, Shayok, Sakti Tangtse and Durbuk
  • Ancient inhabitants of Ladakh were Dards, an Indo- Aryan race
  • King Singe Namgyal - consolidated the Ladakhi Empire, strong monarch, diplomat and a builder. He built the historic 9- storied Leh palace & Horse polo
  • In the ancient times the present Leh district was a part of Greater Ladakh spread over from Kailash Mansarover to Swaat (Dardistan)
  • In 1979 when the reorganization of the districts was carried out, the Ladakh district was divided into two full-fledged district of Leh and Kargil.
  • Leh District is administered by an elected body known as the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh. The LAHDC was established in 1995. It is a tobacco free zone. As of July 2019, Leh district is divided into 6 Sub-Divisions, 8 tehsils and 16 Blocks


Ladakh: Physiography
  • Zanskar, the Ladakh and the Karakoram. Between these ranges, the Shayok, Indus and Zanskar rivers flow and most of the population lives in valleys of these rivers
  • Ladakh lies on the rain shadow side of the Himalayan, where dry monsoon winds reaches Leh after being robbed of its moisture in plains
  • Climate of arctic and desert – making it cold desert
  • Granite, Stone, Gypsum, limestone
  • Granite only in Leh & Kargil – not yet exploited
  • The district has been divided into four natural valleys – the Drass Valley, the Indus Valley and the Upper Sindh Valley of Kanji Nallah Valley
  • Kargil is the second largest town in Ladakh after Leh – located along the banks of the Suru River. Summers are cool with frigid nights, while winters are long and chilly with temperatures often dropping to − 51 °C
Nubra River Merges
  • Nubra river merges with Shyok and thereafter both the rivers are named as River Shyok. The Nubra river originates from Siachen glacier. It runs parallel to the upper Shyok river and finally merges with the latter in its middle portion near Disk it.
  • The eastern part of Ladakh is in the form of a high altitude plateau known as Changthang. Changpas are people here
  • Kargil is warmer then Dras and Leh. The mean monthly temperature is higher than 10° C from the month of May to October and it exceeds 20° C during the months of July and August.
  • Dras station of this tehsil records the highest precipitation in Ladakh i.e.. 67.3 CMS in a year with a maximum (14.7 CMS) in the month of March
  • Ladakh is a channel through which Pashm, the raw material of Kashmir՚s multi-crores shawl industry, passed from western Tibet to Srinagar

Indian Model of Secularism

Indian Model of Secularism

Criticism of Indian Secularism

Criticism of Indian Secularism

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